Coffee beans may look the same once it’s roasted. But, you may be surprised knowing actually there are several types of coffee beans. Each of them has different taste and characteristic.
However, when it comes to daily cup of coffee, the two most popular varieties are Arabica and Robusta. These two coffee varieties are different in its taste, price and growing conditions.
Well, if you tend to like a coffee with softer taste, excellent acidity and a bit of bitterness, your ideal choice is Arabica. Whereas you like a coffee that has harsher taste and nutty aftertaste, you must choice Robusta. There is none of them better than another.
Each has distinctive taste. Although there is also the third variety known as Liberica but this variety is far less popular. And finding it in the market is much more difficult. So, you’ll be left with two types of coffee beans only.
When it comes to the origin of coffee beans, they are actually seeds from fruits that look like cherries.
Before they can be consumed, they go through certain different process including peeling, drying and roasting. Once all the processes are done, you’ll get the beans ready to be made coffee.
Each of the types of coffee beans is affected by several factors that determine the taste and the shape as well. The environmental condition is the first major factor.
It includes the height of the altitude and the temperature. Arabica requires colder temperature than Robusta so Arabica usually grows in higher altitude than Robusta.
When it comes to the shape, Arabica coffee beans come with elliptical larger shape while Robusta has more round beans. The structure of the beans is also different.
Two major contents in the beans that affect the taste are chlorogenic acid and caffeine. The chlorogenic acid creates an acidity taste while the caffeine creates bitter taste. Two other contents affecting the taste are sugar content and lipid.
Arabica has more lipid contents than Robusta making Arabica a bit sweeter with unique fruity aroma.
More article :
- The Most Popular Types of Coffee Beans at Market
- What is the Real Deal between Robusta and Arabica Coffee?
- The Differences between Coffee Arabica and Robusta
The List of Coffee Beans Taste and Characters
Arabica Coffee Beans
The name of Arabica coffee beans is definitely one of the two most popular types of coffee beans. You can consider this variety special due to its four chromosome sets whereas Robusta and Liberica only have two chromosome sets.
It gets the biggest coffee market share in the world as it makes up to 65% of the world coffee cultures. However, only few of them are top quality.
Arabica indeed has wide range of taste as it depends on the varietal and its location to grow.
Its taste ranges from soft and sweet to sharp and tangy. The beans even smell just like blueberries when they are not roasted yet.
And once they went through the roasting process, they smell fruity with sugar tones. Most people say Arabica beans are easy to recognize through its aromatic taste.
The different flavors including the level of acidity between the types of coffee beans are affected by several factors. The factors include the method and the beans’ genetic.
As explained earlier, the taste of Arabica coffee beans is different depending on where the tree grows. For instance, Arabica beans from Ethiopia are different than those of India or Indonesia.
The Ethiopian beans tend to taste fruity like berries while Indonesia and India beans taste earthy. Meanwhile, beans from Central America have different taste as well which is similar to citrus. In most of the locations, the ideal condition for the tree to grow is at low altitude.
As for the amount of caffeine, Arabica, one of the two most famous types of coffee beans has less caffeine compared to Robusta.
It’s true that Arabica beans, one of the two most well-known types of coffee beans are impressive and very flavorful. These beans were actually first discovered on Arabian Peninsula.
That’s maybe the reason why the beans are named Arabica. When the tree has reached several years, the beans can be cultivated.
When the beans are fresh, they have beautiful good fragrant flowers similar to berries. They look naturally dark green at first but when they start to get ripe, they turn into glossy dark red.
To get the best beans, the right harvesting time is crucial to get the best taste of the beans. Touted as the world’s best coffee among two types of coffee beans, most companies prefer to use Arabica coffee beans to create the best coffee drink.
Its smoother flavor profile and less bitter taste are some of the reasons the beans very popular. Of all the various Arabica beans from throughout the world, the Gourmet Coffee Beans are perhaps among the most favorable.
This mild Arabica bean is grown on a certain area with rich volcanic soil to produce more excellent coffee beans quality. Its taste is so good that it is very expensive in price. In fact, it’s often being exclusive only for the riches.
Robusta Coffee Beans
The second most popular types of coffee beans, Robusta coffee beans were called as canephora. The bean is less popular than Arabica but the taste is excellent and very distinctive.
It’s often used to make espresso blends. This type of coffee bean is usually offered at lower price because the growing of the tree is much easier.
It’s more resistant to possible disease. So, it reduces the cost and allows the beans to be offered at more affordable prices.
In term of taste, Robusta coffee beans have typical burnt flavor and bitterness once tasted. Usually, those who espresso blends love these beans more than the Arabica beans.
Robusta is also more common to use to make instant coffee drink or powder. And, it also has the most amount of caffeine between the two types of coffee beans. It has 2.7% more caffeine than the Arabica beans.
When you go to certain countries known for two types of coffee beans producer like India and Indonesia, it’s very easy to buy Robusta coffee. It’s the beans that people use to make cheap coffee drink you can literally find being sold on the street.
The typical low Robusta quality also makes the beans as input to the Arabica beans. The biggest Robusta coffee beans are Brasil with 1/3 of total global Robusta harvest followed by Vietnam, India and Indonesia.
The reason why it has more bitterness than Arabica is its pyrazine content. When the beans are roasted, this content creates strong and distinctive deep flavor.
No wonder Robusta, one of two types of coffee beans is often used to be blended together with Arabica to give strong finish to the taste.
This practice is common in Italian coffee culture. As we speak about Italian coffee culture, it’s true that Robusta has been becoming a favorite in this country.
It’s to make the famous espresso coffee blend. The main goal of using Robusta coffee is to get the intense aroma and taste. This taste is so good when mixed with foam or cream. When it comes to the growing of the tree that produces Robusta coffee beans, the farmers deal with much easier care.
The tree is easier to grow and is less vulnerable to disease and extreme weather condition. It also produces more fruits that Arabica tree. The harvesting period is also shorter allowing farmers to yield more crops every time the harvesting time comes.
Liberica Coffee Beans
In addition, another type of coffee beans available in the market is Liberica coffee. It’s true that its popularity is far less compared to the two popular types of coffee beans, Arabica and Robusta.
This coffee bean is harvested specially from the coffee liberica tree that is native in Philippine, Malaysia and Indonesia.
The tree can grow to 20 meters height and produce much larger size of fruit than the Arabica fruits.
For your information, these types of coffee beans have unique and distinctive taste. It is strongly characterized with chocolaty and berry-tone sweetness taste and aroma.
The first you sip the coffee, you’ll taste a bitter walnut. Then, it’s followed by a taste of dark chocolate with a smoky acridity. In the end of the sip, you’ll find a taste of berry-like acidity.
This combination creates a very flavorful and rich taste and aroma like you’ve never experienced before. In any types, the roasting process holds important role to affect the final taste of the beans. Roasting process can change as well as expand the smell and the taste.
Good roasting process brings better taste and improper process leads to lack of taste. The common levels for the roasting process are New England, Full City, Cinnamon, American Night, Italian Dark French, City Medium, French Espresso and Spanish Espresso. If you are a fan of light brown taste, choose the Cinnamon. If you love dark coffee taste, the New England will be satisfying.
So, to get the right preferred taste, choose the types of coffee beans first and follow by choosing the roasting process.