Everyone knows coffee as one of popular beverage around the world. It comes from coffee beans which are processed by roasted method. In general, there are many ways to turn coffee beans into drink. Arabica and Robusta contribute to the majority of coffee in the world. Besides pure species, people extend coffee varieties to get the better quality.
The result is varieties of Arabica and Robusta that produce more seeds and taste better. Coffee is native tropical plant from Africa. Nowadays, more than fifty countries have coffee as their trading product. You will find coffee in Asia, America, Australia, even Europe. Of course, tropical area produces the better seeds.
Beverages and drinks are the reason why coffee is much popular. When you ask people about coffee’s function, it is hardly to hear about anything but drink.
Research showed the effect of coffee in various ways. This drink contains caffeine which stimulates brain and human organ to stay awake more than usual. You will drink coffee when needing to work overnight.
Each of coffee varieties has distinctions. For common, it is difficult to recognize one variety to other, particularly when coffee is already turned into drink.
Espresso or black coffee is basic drink that incorporates the fresh brewed and roasted beans. For more information about coffee and its varieties, you need to read the following sections.
What Are Coffee Varieties?
In botanical and biology, variety is the level below species. For example, species Robusta has some varieties based on where the plant is grown.
Robusta in Africa, Asia, and South America are different. Why the same species has distinction? You cannot find two plants with similar characteristic. As human, two people have distinction, even for identical twins. Same species has similar genetic factor and DNA, but they are different because of external factor. It happens for plants in the same tropical area.
Only few of varieties are known on market. Geographical difference is one of factor why you will find many coffee varieties. You may think variety in plant will bring good effect. It is not completely true. On market, you only find the best variety that produces many coffee beans with high quality.
There are hundreds of varieties with less known around the world. Besides geographical, coffee varieties appears because of weather, human involvement, and other environmental aspects.
For human involvement, the variety is called as hybrid or cultivated. Common people find difficulty to make distinction between variety, hybrid, and cultivated in coffee industry.
Actually, there is no limited barrier in this matter. Variety relies on natural aspect to transform normal plant into higher quality. Besides, it is natural selection where the strongest one will survive. After one generation with strong characteristic is established, the next plants will obtain similar characteristic.
From this point of view, variety appears without human involvement. In reality, coffee varieties cannot be created naturally because of limited condition. To make everything quicker, coffee plant should be under human hand. This is why you only get the best product at store.
Hybrid is combination between one variety and others until you get the new one with better quality. Some experts exclude hybrid from variety because it is not purely one plant.
To make hybrid coffee beans, farmers have to plant more than one variety. However, this matter will turn into one variety after hybrid is able to reproduce seeds that grow similar characteristic with its parents. Understanding varieties of coffee is starting point to know more about coffee around the world.
Africa as Original Place for Coffee
As stated earlier, Africa was original place where coffee plant discovered. East Africa is known as birthplace of coffee. The countries in this area are Ethiopia and Sudan.
Ethiopia might be the popular country in term of original variety, but Sudan emerges as the new source of some coffee varieties. As indigenous plant, coffee can be found around those countries. Sudan suffers from border dispute since long time ago. Civil war and uprising often happens in this country, so the lack of stability influences coffee production.
If you want to visit this area, it is better to check the local situation beforehand. The research about coffee varieties is rare in East Africa. Moreover, you cannot find coffee community as you get in America or Europe.
As birthplace of coffee, Sudan or other countries should put much concern about coffee tourism. Sometimes, the reason why people do travelling is to eat or drink something.
Coffee is clearly one of the most famous beverages. With local variety and specialty, people will have reason to visit Africa. Enjoy coffee from its original place is worth to try in their life.
Let’s back to Africa where special variety is found. Actually, thousands of coffee varieties are available here, but only few of them are dedicated as commercial product.
The reason have already stated in previous section. Each of varieties has the name based on local place, so it is quite unfamiliar words for foreigner.
For example, coffee in Sidama is called Sidama variety, while coffee that grows in Yirgacheffe will be called Yirgacheffe type, etc. The place is in form of district, village, or coffee field.
For scientist, this name is not solely variety unless further classification is being established. Of course, it takes time and effort to do such task and Africa might not be good place to conduct long research.
From all of coffee varieties, Yirgacheffe is known with excellent taste. It has jasmine aroma, delicate texture, brightness appearance, and soft mouthfeel.
People praise this variety because it looks like tea after being ready to drink. The name represents certain area in Africa, particularly Sudan. Yirgacheffe is popular in coffee community. Another place is Harar where coffee is processed in natural way. Before coffee beans are removed, their fruits should be dried completely.
Well, it takes half to one day to remove the fruit. With this method, coffee beans turn into high quality product that’s ready for further process.
Africa might be original place for coffee plant. However, many countries start to produce coffee varieties based on their own characteristic. Moreover, country does not solely rely to specific variety. As you know, coffee market is full of new varieties every years.
Quality determines the price, so high-grade variety will be protected with law in original country. From historical aspect, coffee is the most influenced plant in trading. In past time, Europe explored the world because of spices and commercial plants such as sugar and coffee.
For your information, Africa was the first continent to be explored as it is near to Europe. After that, coffee was planted in Asia and America. Other Varieties on Market.
Arabica and Robusta
People say Arabica is better than Robusta. If you are new comer in this field, it is quite difficult to determine the distinction between Arabic and Robusta. With coffee varieties, you will find that Arabica in certain area is different from your local production.
Arabica is known as hybridization, so two species are required to acquire Arabica. It is Coffee canephora and Coffee Eugenioides that become the basis of Arabica.
The first species is known as Robusta and the latter is lesser known in coffee community. It is obviously clear that hybrid aims to create better variety. Arabica is the result of long hybridization in coffee plant.
Hundreds of coffee varieties are available around the world and only few of them will be explored in this article. Bourbon is variety with sweet taste and delicate texture. The plant is very fragile with less coffee berries, so it is very exclusive.
Having less production makes this variety is premium coffee and you will understand after taking one sip of glass of Bourbon. From its name, you know where to find this variety.
Another variety is Catimor with high bitterness, but low acidity. Catimor is Indonesian type of coffee. Herbal aroma and fruit flavor are the reason why you should try Catimor. This variety is available in many countries.
In coffee varieties, Ethiopian Heirloom is claimed to be world and natural variety at all. It grows in southwestern Ethiopia. Actually, this variety is very general because you will find different variety in each of village. As stated earlier, local people name coffee based on where the plants ware grown. This variety has been in Ethiopia for hundred years, so it is accustomed with weather and soil.
Catual and Caturra
The next variety is Catuai. It is coffee with high acidity and yellow color in its beans. Latin America is placed where you find Catuai. Besides yellow, red is common color of coffee beans from Catuai variety. Close family of Catuai is Caturra. You will find in Colombia, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
This variety has bright acidity but lesser than Catuai. Study showed that Caturra come from Bourbon. Therefore, you will taste similarity, though they still have many differences. Brazil was original country to develop Caturra into variety that ready for commercial product. Both are recommended coffee varieties.
Sweet Citrus and Typical
Sweet citrus is iconic taste from Pacamara. You will find this variety as top product in coffee shop. Another variety is Typical as one of coffee varieties in Arabica family. You will taste sweetness, and cleanliness of beans in this coffee.
Vollalobos is one of old varieties in the world. It was existed during Dutch trader in 1600s. Good acidity and strong flavor make Villalobos is part of the top coffee varieties.